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As far as we know, there are no complete presentations of the Machado case either in print or on the Internet. The references we provide below are all partial views of the case. The case presentation we have done is based on original news sources, court documents and police records, interviews with individuals involved in the case, and other references from the Internet.

The best overview from original sources can be obtained by spending the money to buy the series of articles in the Orange County register. A search in their archives reveals (as of June, 2001) 23 articles on this case in the paper.

We also provide some references to books and articles that are useful background reading about flaming, perceptions of privacy, and the Machado case.

Finally, we provide a large list of links that will help you see the larger picture in this case.


Useful Sources:

  1. R. E. Anderson, "The ACM Code of Ethics: History , Process, and Implications," in Social Issues in Computing: Putting Computers in their Place, eds. C. Huff and T. Finholt, McGraw-Hill, New York: 1994, pp. 48-71.
  2. A.Goldman, The Moral Foundation of Professional Ethics. Rowan & Littlefield, Totowa NJ, 1980.
  3. R. Collins, K. Miller, "Paramedic Ethics for Computer Professionals," Journal of Systems and Software, Jan. 1992, pp. 1-20.
  4. T. Finholt, L. Sproull, "Electronic Groups at Work" Organization Science, 1, 1999, pp. 41-64.
  5. C. W. Huff, "Practical Guidance for Teaching the Social Impact Statement (SIS)," in C. Huff (Ed.) Computers and the Quality of Life: The Proceedings of the Symposium on Computers and the Quality of Life, ACM Press, New York, Feb. 1996, pp. 86-89.
  6. C. Huff, T. Finholt, eds., Social Issues in Computing: Putting Computers in Their Place. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994.
  7. D. G. Johnson, Computer Ethics, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1999.
  8. S. Kiesler, ed., Culture of the Internet, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, N.J, 1997.
  9. V. Shea, Netiquette, (current April 2002).
  10. S.P. Weisband, B.A. Reinig, "Managing User Perceptions of Email Privacy," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 38, No. 12, Dec. 1995, p. 40-48.
  11. D. Winter, C.W. Huff, Adapting the Internet: Comments From a Women-only Electronic Forum. The American Sociologist, vol. 27, no. 1, 1996, pp. 30-54.


News Articles

The Orange County Register is the local paper for Irvine and Orange County. Its searchable archives cost money to retrieve an article, but have the best documentation on the Machado case as it unfolded.

R.F. Raney, "More Trouble for Man in Hate Mail Case", The New York Times on the web, Retrieved from: (current Oct. 1, 1998).


Government Documents:

United States v. Richard Machado, 96-142-AHS U.S. (1997).

Irvine Police Department, Crime Report #57190.A029, DR# 961473, Sept. 23, 1997.

Irvine Police Department, Supplemental Report, Case# UCIPD 96-1473, Harassing Communication/Threat, Sept. 24, 1996.

Federally Protected Activities Act, U.S. Code, Title 18, Chapter 13, sect. 245(1968).


University of California Links

The University of California at Irvine

UCI’s Office of Academic Computing (OAC)

UCI Email use policy

UCI’s Student Newspaper, with archives back to the time of the Machado trial

Legal Analyses

The Civil Rights Act of 1968

Link to brandenburg vs ohio:

Federal Bureau of Investigation Web page on Hate Crime Cases.


Approaches to Privacy Legislation in other countries

Office of the Information Commissioner in the United Kingdom

The European Commission’s site on Data Protection

The Privacy Commissioner of Canada


Professionalism in Software Engineering

The Texas Board of Professional Engineers, which contains a link to the legislation that established software engineering as a licensed profession.


The Development of the UNIX operating system

A paper by Dennis Ritchie on the early history of Unix

A useful paper on the history of the development of Unix


Miscellaneous Links

The United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Electronic Privacy Information Center